Category Archives: FTTH

Unknown Ipv6 and IPv4 multicast floods blocking in Mikrotik

I was troubleshooting an enterprise network for slowness the speed. So when I went through the troubleshooting steps I found that there is an IPv6 and IPv4 unknown unicast flooding that occurs in the Lan interface. it’s a medium enterprise where they have almost 400 end hosts including telephone and IP cameras as well. find the picture given… Read More »

IPv6 SUbnetting.

In IPv4, the subnet mask 255.255.255.0 is 32 bits and consists of four 8-bit octets. The address: 10.10.10.0 subnet mask 255.255.255.0 means that the subnet is a range of IP addresses from 10.10.10.0 – 10.10.10.255. The prefix-length in IPv6 is the equivalent of the subnet mask in IPv4. However, rather than being expressed in four octets like it is in IPv4, it is expressed as… Read More »

How to Shorten IPv6 Addresses.

An IPv6 address consists of 32 hexadecimal digits, in 8 sections of 4 digits each, separated by colons. It looks something like this: 1234:5678:90ab:cdef:1234:5678:90ab:cdef IPv6 addresses have several shortcuts that allow them to be compressed into smaller strings following certain rules. If there are any leading zeroes in a section, they may be left off. 0001:0001:0001:0001:0001:0001:0001:0001 could be written as 1:1:1:1:1:1:1:1. Any… Read More »

Default Route blocking for advertisements to downstream peers in BGP #Huawei

I want to allow all other routes but not the default routes to my downstream BGP peers. Step-1= Create the Prefix list. ip ip-prefix NO-DEFAULT-ROUTE index 10 deny 0.0.0.0 0ip ip-prefix NO-DEFAULT-ROUTE index 20 permit 0.0.0.0 0 less-equal 32 Step-2=Route-Policy Creation route-policy NO-DEFAULT-ROUTE permit node 10if-match ip-prefix NO-DEFAULT-ROUTE Step-3= Apply on Peers. bgp <ASN>peer <ip> as-number <ASN>peer <ip>… Read More »

Prefix-Lists Hacking.

ip prefix-list A permit 0.0.0.0/0 ge 32 The above statement will match only hosts. ip prefix-list B permit 128.0.0.0/2 ge 17 The above statement will match Any subnet in a class B address space. ip prefix-list C permit 0.0.0.0/0 le 32 The above statement will match all routes. ip prefix-list D permit 0.0.0.0/0 The above statement will match… Read More »

GPON Splitter Loss Chart

Splitters are used for dividing one or two optical signals into multiple optical signals.splitters are passive optical devices that are widely used in Passive Optical Networkssuch as GPON, and EPON. There are different types of splitters we have and every splitter has a different insertion loss, So this is very important to understand in the FTTx network when… Read More »