In an EPON OLT, it support 64 ONU on per PON port.So it is important to understand the splitting idea so that you can connect all of your 64 ONT with optimal power according to your distance.
In GPON OLT, it supports 128 ONU per PON port. So it is important to understand the splitting idea so that you can connect all of your 128 ONT with optimal power according to your distance.
Normally there are two types of splitting
Centralized Splitting is a one-stage splitting. For example, Directly the Splitter will be connected to your OLT and another end of your splitter will be directly connected to the subscriber. it’s a single-stage splitting mechanism. it’s not scalable.
Cascading Splitting is a multi-stage splitting mechanism where you can have 2 or 3-stage splitting between the customers and OLT .
Recommended Splitting in EPON.
Two-Stage Splitting in EPON.
It is recommended to design your splitting in Epon in 2 stages or 3 stages. But it’s not recommended to use a 1:64 splitter in a single stage to provide the 64 connection on a port. you can use a single 1:64 splitter in a pon if your total distance is within 10km but still I would suggest you use the 2 or 3-stage splitter for saving more and more fiber in the last mile access.
Three Stage Splitting in EPON.
Three stages splitting level is recommended to use because you can save your fiber a lot.
Recommended Splitting in GPON.
It is highly recommended to design your splitting in 2 stages or 3 stages. But it is not recommended to use a single 1:128 splitter in one single stage to provide the 128 connection on a port. you can use 2 or 3 stages for better design.